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2007年7月22日 (日)

チェリャビンスク 2

ロシア通信社 ノーボスチ:
NNN 核の清算:

Koutijoukouen3_1"The Most Contaminated Spot on the Planet" is a journey, starting on a train which, after 36 hours, brings me from Moscow into the city of Chelyabinsk, the administrative center of the province and home to over a million people.The city sprang up during the Second World War, when Stalin moved weapons production to the isolated region.It would go on to produce 50% of the Soviet Union's tanks.This gave the city its nickname, "Tank City."


From there, the camera travels to the villages of Muslyumovo, Brodokalmak, Tishma, and the town of Argayash.The villagers of Muslyumovo and Brodokalmak were never evacuated from the banks of the contaminated Techa River.Authorities moved the villagers of Tishma in the late 1950's, but only a few kilometers, leaving the locals' grazing land along the banks of the Techa.Argayash is the home of the Sunrasin family resettled after the 1957 explosion.Through Idris Sunrasin, we learn the radiation's death toll on one family: his grandmother, parents, and three of his eight siblings have already died of cancer.Idris himself is dying of stomach cancer and Argayash, a town of 10 thousand, falls within one of the most radioactive zones in the province, according to Russian environmentalists.


"We're all sick. As for the children, I don't know. It's some kind of dying generation." - Lena Morozova, 32


The camera interviews people from all walks of life: Simple farmers and shepherds, teachers, doctors, factory workers and environmental activists from the association Kishtym-57. Officials who represent the Mayak complex and doctors who work for the infamous FIB, the institute devoted to testing the region's people for radiation, are also interviewed.Until 1988, FIB also kept secret the cause of the cancers and chronic illnesses, even from the patients themselves.


The private citizens tell us the stories of being kept in the dark, ineffectively resettled or not resettled at all, the deaths in their families from cancer, their children's chronic illnesses, and their inability to move out of this contaminated area.The mullah of the largely Muslim village of Muslyumovo says simply, "It is the will of God."The villagers tell us that they do not because their roots are there, because they have no money, because their fear the ability to get a job elsewhere, because they know no other life.One man says simply: "You can't escape your fate."


When the camera visits doctors, we learn that the horrifying illnesses faced by the people are compounded by the authorities' refusal, until about three years ago, to even acknowledge that cancer existed in the region.We visit a renowned osteopath whose patient tells us that many, many children in the area of the Mayak complex are born without hands, legs, and feet.


We're nothing but guneia pigs here... They don't give a damn about us.

私たちはここではモルモット(ギニアの豚 guinea pig )実験材料でしかない・・彼らは私たちを気にもかけない。

There aren't many births, the women don't want to have children. Who needs more cripples? - Men gathered at the Muslyumovo store.

たくさんの赤ちゃん誕生は、そこにはない。女性たちは、子どもたちをもとうとはしない。だれが、障害児をもっとほしがるでしょう? 男性たちはムスリュモフの店に集まった。

The camera visits Dr. Genady Romanov, the head of the nuclear complex's research institute.His reactions illustrate the official view of the continuing mismanagement of radioactive waste.When I mention my conversations with local doctors about the high cancer rate in the region, he replies: "What doctors?The Muslyumovo doctors?They're ignoramuses.They're all ignorant about nuclear biology and radiology."

カメラは、核複合施設研究所長である、ジェナディ・ロマノフ医師を訪ねた。彼の反応は、放射性廃棄物の管理の失態を続けていることについての公式な見解を説明する。その地域の高い発癌率について地域の医師たちと話し合ったことを私が述べると、彼は「どの医師か? ムスリュモフの医師か? 彼らは知ったかぶりの馬鹿者たちだ。彼らはみな、核生物学や放射線学について無知だ」と応えた。

Interviews with villagers reveal the presence of the Institute of Biochemistry, called FIB, which has been checking the residents for radiation since the late 1950s, but neither told them the cause of their illness, nor treated them.The camera travels to FIB and talks to Dr. Kosenko, who has worked in the institute for over 30 years: "They didn't know anything, and we had no right to tell them that they had been irradiated.All this information was top secret, because the factory produced weapons-grade plutonium... If someone had found out that in some area there were people who had been irradiated, then it would have been possible to find the factory.That's why these people weren't given any information about radiation."


The authorities' cover-up of the situation expands, as we learned from yet another doctor that until recently, doctors were not allowed to give cancer as a cause of death: "Write something else, either a stroke, or a severe heart attack, or even chronic heart disease, basically any of those accompanying factors.But to just put down cancer as a cause of death was just not allowed."


The camera returns to Dr. Kosenko at FIB, where we see her in a room with thousands of files.She explains that even at FIT they were not allowed to write "radiation sickness" on the patients' charts: "We were given instructions to indicate it with initials, and the three letters were ABC.Wherever we see that abbreviation... all of us who work here knew that it was radiation sickness."


When I left the region in March of 1992, I promised the friends I had made to return soon.When the next summer comes, I am once again on the train to Chelyabinsk.My camera revisits the people in the contaminated areas.I meet kids fishing on the Techa River, where my Geiger counter shows that the fish they've just caught contains twenty times the normal radiation."We eat these fish," they tell me, and add sarcastically, "It's like they say, 'you can't infect the infected'."


The camera then travels to the village of Tishma, which was rebuilt several kilometers from the contaminated Techa in the late 1950s.Anisa Nineeva explains that the village's problems have not been solved: "Only eight kilometers from us there's a radioactive waste containment facility...[the trucks that carry the radioactive waste] come right through our village... And right alongside [the Techa River] is our collective farm... That means we cut our hay there, drink that milk."


We go with Anisa to see her grazing land and Anisa is shocked to tears when our Geiger counter's needle repeatedly goes off the scale, showing forty times the normal background radiation."This is terrible news for me.What should I do now?This is where half the village has been cutting hay since 1956."

私たちはアニサと一緒に、家畜に草を食ませる土地を見に行った。ガイガーカウンターの針がくりかえし目盛を振り切れるのを見て、アニサは衝撃のあまり涙を浮かべた。放射線量は通常の40倍を示していた。「これは私には恐ろしいニュースです。いま、どうすればいいの? ここは、村の半分(の住民)が1956年から干し草を刈ってきた場所です。」




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